Curricular Framework for DID-ACT

We published our most recent deliverable this week: Developing, implementing, and disseminating an adaptive clinical reasoning curriculum for healthcare students and educators.

Team meeting to discuss the framework and work in virtual small groups

The goal of this deliverable was to provide our curricular framework with teaching/ assessment methods for the student curriculum and the train-the-trainer course.

Having already established our initial needs assessment and definition of goals and objectives (Deliverable 2.1), we have reached the exciting point of providing educational strategies in terms of a curriculum framework for clinical reasoning. We followed the constructive alignment theory to ensure an optimal alignment of learning objectives, teaching, and assessment. We have employed a theme-based approach. We plan to continue using a blended-learning format to help ensure flexibility for our learners while also utilizing an optimal match of teaching and assessment. 

Blended learning combines online activities, such as virtual patients and interactive videos, with face-to-face methods such as bedside teaching. We aim for our courses to have the learner at the centre, meaning that the student is actively engaged in their learning. In this set up, the teacher is more to support and facilitate learning. 

Some of our biggest wins in this work package have been:

  • Defining 35 general learning objectives in D2.1 and aligned them in 14 themes/ categories to describe the DID-ACT student curriculum and the train-the-trainer course.
  • We have defined four different learner levels: Novice, Intermediate, Advanced, and Teacher. 
  • Our list of suitable learning and assessment methods that align with our previously defined categories.
  • A breakdown of our teaching and learning assessment strategies for clinical reasoning clearly defined. 
  • Overarching curricular outline for the categories, theories, errors, and aspects of patient participation related to the clinical reasoning process. These outlines include the specific learning objectives, teaching and learning activities, as well as assessments, both summative and formative, for our courses. 

Our most recent deliverable is a big step as it establishes the framework for the next steps in our curriculum development process. Our team is both multi-professional international; thereby reflecting the needs of the different health profession curricula and curricular formats of the partner schools. Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, we could not organize as originally planned in a face-to-face meeting to discuss the framework. However, we were able to organize the work in small groups across professions and contexts who worked asynchronously and met online according to their needs. In addition, we held a series of online meetings to discuss specific aspects and make decisions in consensus. 

Read more about the deliverable in detail here.

What’s next? Coming later in December 2020 will be our “Collection of available Open Educational Resources (OER)”, “Publication of recommendations for learning objectives of a clinical reasoning curriculum”, and our “Set of evaluation and analysis tools”

You can keep track of what is upcoming in the project on our Results page, or by clicking here. 

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How to teach synchronously in a virtual setting

  • You need a reliable camera, microphone, and virtual platform and be familiar with its features, such as whiteboard, chat, polling, breakout rooms, etc.
  • At the beginning establish communication rules, e.g. whether participants should raise their (virtual) hand, use the chat, and/or just speak. Also, we recommend asking participants to turn on their camera
  • For small group work break out rooms work very well, just be clear about the tasks the groups should work on prior to dividing them into the groups.
  • For collaboration the use of integrated virtual whiteboards or other platforms such as Padlet are very useful. Just make sure prior to the session that you have everything setup and the links at hand, e.g. to post them in the chat.
  • Allow a bit more time for starting the session and the group works as there might be participants who are not familiar with the platform or technical problems might occur.

How to motivate unprepared participants

  • Make clear that the asynchronous assignments are a core part of the course and that its content will not be repeated. Even if it is difficult, stick to that when starting the synchronous teaching session.
  • If you expect unprepared participants, you can start the session with a student-centered group exercise mixing prepared and unprepared students to increase peer-pressure and make them realize that being unprepared does not feel good.  
  • Use the introductory or closing quizzes / tests so that participants can self- assess whether they have the required knowledge and you as a facilitator can see the level of knowledge and preparation of your participants.

Further recommended reading:

How to involve participants with different levels of experience

  • To account for such different levels, we recommend making use of the asynchronous preparatory phases which also include introductory quizzes in which participants can self-assess their prior knowledge and you as a facilitator can assess the differences within your group. Participants with less prior experience can also be guided to additional preparatory resources.
  • Encourage participants to work in pairs or small groups when preparing so that they can help and learn from each other. You could even facilitate this by dividing them into groups with different levels of experience.
  • Similarly, during the synchronous phases, we recommend forming groups with participants different levels of experience and emphasize the peer support aspects of such group activities.
  • We also recommend starting with rather smaller groups and allow more time than stated in the course outlines, if you expect a heterogenous level of experience. This way you can better manage this challenge.
  • Encourage your participants to ask questions, emphasizing that nobody knows everything and that it is important for learning to ask questions.  
  • Especially in the train-the-trainer course you might have to deal with over-confident participants, who especially in an interprofessional setting can dominate the group. This is a complex cultural challenge, but you could try to establish (and follow) communication rules at the beginning of a session.  

How to address potential overlaps or redundancies

  • Identify what is already included and what is missing in your curriculum related to clinical reasoning outcomes and compare it to the DID-ACT blueprint. Prioritize learning outcomes that are not yet covered but regarded as important.
  • Identify activities, resources, or teaching sessions with similar learning outcomes that might be in need for change anyway because of low evaluation results, teachers or students struggle with it. These could be suitable for adding or replacing parts with DID-ACT activities.
  • Ask teachers and students about overlaps and gaps they see in their teaching / learning of clinical reasoning and where they struggle. This could also be done by a reflection round after related teaching activities in the curriculum
  • Although ideally a longitudinal integration is aimed at, we recommend to starting small with a pilot implementation to gain experience and develop a show case.

How to teach in an interprofessional setting

  • Allow for enough time prior to the teaching for the organization and motivation / encouragement of stakeholders and participants
  • Allow for enough time and guidance during the course so that the participants from the different professions can get to know each other and their professions and discuss their different perspectives. This might mean that you need to calculate some extra time in addition to the suggested duration of the learning unit.
  • There may be a different understanding of clinical reasoning in the different health professions, so we recommend making participants aware of this. You could for example use and adapt activities from the learning units on the health profession roles to facilitate this.
  • Courses in an interprofessional setting should not come too early in the curriculum (not before professions have formed their own professional identity - however, this also depends on the aim of the course). 
  • Make sure you have enough participants from different professions. If possible, the facilitator could divide the participants in smaller groups with an equal distribution of professions. 
  • Similarly, you need an equal distribution of facilitators / facilitators from different professions.
  • Develop customized learning materials considering the different professions. If needed you can adapt the material and activities provided in the DID-ACT curriculum.

Further recommended reading:

van Diggele, C., Roberts, C., Burgess, A. et al. Interprofessional education: tips for design and implementation. BMC Med Educ 20, 455 (2020). (Link)

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