Data Privacy

We are very delighted that you have shown interest in our EU funded project. Data protection is of a particularly high priority for the management of the DID-ACT project team and University of Augsburg. The use of the Internet pages of the DID-ACT project is possible without any indication of personal data; however, if a data subject wants to use special enterprise services via our website, processing of personal data could become necessary. If the processing of personal data is necessary and there is no statutory basis for such processing, we generally obtain consent from the data subject.

The processing of personal data, such as the name, address, e-mail address, or telephone number of a data subject shall always be in line with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and in accordance with the country-specific data protection regulations applicable to the did-act project. By means of this data protection declaration, our enterprise would like to inform the general public of the nature, scope, and purpose of the personal data we collect, use and process. Furthermore, data subjects are informed, by means of this data protection declaration, of the rights to which they are entitled.

As the controller, the did-act project has implemented numerous technical and organizational measures to ensure the most complete protection of personal data processed through this website. However, Internet-based data transmissions may in principle have security gaps, so absolute protection may not be guaranteed. For this reason, every data subject is free to transfer personal data to us via alternative means, e.g. by telephone.

1. Definitions

The data protection declaration of the DID-ACT project is based on the terms used by the European legislator for the adoption of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Our data protection declaration should be legible and understandable for the general public, as well as our customers and business partners. To ensure this, we would like to first explain the terminology used.

In this data protection declaration, we use, inter alia, the following terms:

  • a) Personal data: Personal data means any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (“data subject”). An identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person.
  • b) Data subject: Data subject is any identified or identifiable natural person, whose personal data is processed by the controller responsible for the processing.
  • c) Processing: Processing is any operation or set of operations which is performed on personal data or on sets of personal data, whether or not by automated means, such as collection, recording, organisation, structuring, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, restriction, erasure or destruction.
  • d) Restriction of processing: Restriction of processing is the marking of stored personal data with the aim of limiting their processing in the future.
  • e) Profiling Profiling means any form of automated processing of personal data consisting of the use of personal data to evaluate certain personal aspects relating to a natural person, in particular to analyse or predict aspects concerning that natural person’s performance at work, economic situation, health, personal preferences, interests, reliability, behaviour, location or movements.
  • f) Pseudonymisation: Pseudonymisation is the processing of personal data in such a manner that the personal data can no longer be attributed to a specific data subject without the use of additional information, provided that such additional information is kept separately and is subject to technical and organisational measures to ensure that the personal data are not attributed to an identified or identifiable natural person.
  • g) Controller or controller: responsible for the processing Controller or controller responsible for the processing is the natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data; where the purposes and means of such processing are determined by Union or Member State law, the controller or the specific criteria for its nomination may be provided for by Union or Member State law.
  • h) Processor Processor is a natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which processes personal data on behalf of the controller.
  • i) Recipient Recipient is a natural or legal person, public authority, agency or another body, to which the personal data are disclosed, whether a third party or not. However, public authorities which may receive personal data in the framework of a particular inquiry in accordance with Union or Member State law shall not be regarded as recipients; the processing of those data by those public authorities shall be in compliance with the applicable data protection rules according to the purposes of the processing.
  • j) Third party: Third party is a natural or legal person, public authority, agency or body other than the data subject, controller, processor and persons who, under the direct authority of the controller or processor, are authorised to process personal data.
  • k) Consent Consent of the data subject is any freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous indication of the data subject’s wishes by which he or she, by a statement or by a clear affirmative action, signifies agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her.

2. Name and Address of the controller

Controller for the purposes of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), other data protection laws applicable in Member states of the European Union and other provisions related to data protection is:

Prof. Dr. iur. Ulrich M. Gassner, Mag. rer. publ., M. Jur. (Oxon.)
Universitätsstr. 24
86159 Augsburg
Tel.:        (0821) 598-4600
Fax:        (0821) 598-4591
E-Mail: ulrich.gassner@jura.uni-augsburg.de
Website:  www.uni-augsburg.de/organisation/einrichtungen/datenschutz/

3. Cookies

The Internet pages of the did-act project use cookies. Cookies are text files that are stored in a computer system via an Internet browser.

Many Internet sites and servers use cookies. Many cookies contain a so-called cookie ID. A cookie ID is a unique identifier of the cookie. It consists of a character string through which Internet pages and servers can be assigned to the specific Internet browser in which the cookie was stored. This allows visited Internet sites and servers to differentiate the individual browser of the dats subject from other Internet browsers that contain other cookies. A specific Internet browser can be recognized and identified using the unique cookie ID.

Through the use of cookies, the did-act project can provide the users of this website with more user-friendly services that would not be possible without the cookie setting.

By means of a cookie, the information and offers on our website can be optimized with the user in mind. Cookies allow us, as previously mentioned, to recognize our website users. The purpose of this recognition is to make it easier for users to utilize our website. The website user that uses cookies, e.g. does not have to enter access data each time the website is accessed, because this is taken over by the website, and the cookie is thus stored on the user’s computer system. Another example is the cookie of a shopping cart in an online shop. The online store remembers the articles that a customer has placed in the virtual shopping cart via a cookie.

The data subject may, at any time, prevent the setting of cookies through our website by means of a corresponding setting of the Internet browser used, and may thus permanently deny the setting of cookies. Furthermore, already set cookies may be deleted at any time via an Internet browser or other software programs. This is possible in all popular Internet browsers. If the data subject deactivates the setting of cookies in the Internet browser used, not all functions of our website may be entirely usable.

4. Collection of general data and information

The website of the did-act project collects a series of general data and information when a data subject or automated system calls up the website. This general data and information are stored in the server log files. Collected may be (1) the browser types and versions used, (2) the operating system used by the accessing system, (3) the website from which an accessing system reaches our website (so-called referrers), (4) the sub-websites, (5) the date and time of access to the Internet site, (6) an Internet protocol address (IP address), (7) the Internet service provider of the accessing system, and (8) any other similar data and information that may be used in the event of attacks on our information technology systems.

When using these general data and information, the did-act project does not draw any conclusions about the data subject. Rather, this information is needed to (1) deliver the content of our website correctly, (2) optimize the content of our website as well as its advertisement, (3) ensure the long-term viability of our information technology systems and website technology, and (4) provide law enforcement authorities with the information necessary for criminal prosecution in case of a cyber-attack. Therefore, the did-act project analyzes anonymously collected data and information statistically, with the aim of increasing the data protection and data security of our enterprise, and to ensure an optimal level of protection for the personal data we process. The anonymous data of the server log files are stored separately from all personal data provided by a data subject.

7. Contact possibility via the website

The website of the DID-ACT project contains information that enables a quick electronic contact to our enterprise, as well as direct communication with us, which also includes a general address of the so-called electronic mail (e-mail address). If a data subject contacts the controller by e-mail or via a contact form, the personal data transmitted by the data subject are automatically stored. Such personal data transmitted on a voluntary basis by a data subject to the data controller are stored for the purpose of processing or contacting the data subject. There is no transfer of this personal data to third parties.

8. Routine erasure and blocking of personal data

The data controller shall process and store the personal data of the data subject only for the period necessary to achieve the purpose of storage, or as far as this is granted by the European legislator or other legislators in laws or regulations to which the controller is subject to.

If the storage purpose is not applicable, or if a storage period prescribed by the European legislator or another competent legislator expires, the personal data are routinely blocked or erased in accordance with legal requirements.

9. Rights of the data subject

  • a) Right of confirmation Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to obtain from the controller the confirmation as to whether or not personal data concerning him or her are being processed. If a data subject wishes to avail himself of this right of confirmation, he or she may, at any time, contact any employee of the controller.
  • b) Right of access Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to obtain from the controller free information about his or her personal data stored at any time and a copy of this information. Furthermore, the European directives and regulations grant the data subject access to the following information:
    • the purposes of the processing;
    • the categories of personal data concerned;
    • the recipients or categories of recipients to whom the personal data have been or will be disclosed, in particular recipients in third countries or international organisations;
    • where possible, the envisaged period for which the personal data will be stored, or, if not possible, the criteria used to determine that period;
    • the existence of the right to request from the controller rectification or erasure of personal data, or restriction of processing of personal data concerning the data subject, or to object to such processing;
    • the existence of the right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority;
    • where the personal data are not collected from the data subject, any available information as to their source;
    • the existence of automated decision-making, including profiling, referred to in Article 22(1) and (4) of the GDPR and, at least in those cases, meaningful information about the logic involved, as well as the significance and envisaged consequences of such processing for the data subject. Furthermore, the data subject shall have a right to obtain information as to whether personal data are transferred to a third country or to an international organisation. Where this is the case, the data subject shall have the right to be informed of the appropriate safeguards relating to the transfer. If a data subject wishes to avail himself of this right of access, he or she may, at any time, contact any employee of the controller.
  • c) Right to rectification Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to obtain from the controller without undue delay the rectification of inaccurate personal data concerning him or her. Taking into account the purposes of the processing, the data subject shall have the right to have incomplete personal data completed, including by means of providing a supplementary statement. If a data subject wishes to exercise this right to rectification, he or she may, at any time, contact any employee of the controller.
  • d) Right to erasure (Right to be forgotten) Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to obtain from the controller the erasure of personal data concerning him or her without undue delay, and the controller shall have the obligation to erase personal data without undue delay where one of the following grounds applies, as long as the processing is not necessary:
    • The personal data are no longer necessary in relation to the purposes for which they were collected or otherwise processed.
    • The data subject withdraws consent to which the processing is based according to point (a) of Article 6(1) of the GDPR, or point (a) of Article 9(2) of the GDPR, and where there is no other legal ground for the processing.
    • The data subject objects to the processing pursuant to Article 21(1) of the GDPR and there are no overriding legitimate grounds for the processing, or the data subject objects to the processing pursuant to Article 21(2) of the GDPR.
    • The personal data have been unlawfully processed.
    • The personal data must be erased for compliance with a legal obligation in Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject.
    • The personal data have been collected in relation to the offer of information society services referred to in Article 8(1) of the GDPR. If one of the aforementioned reasons applies, and a data subject wishes to request the erasure of personal data stored by the did-act project, he or she may, at any time, contact any employee of the controller. An employee of did-act project shall promptly ensure that the erasure request is complied with immediately. Where the controller has made personal data public and is obliged pursuant to Article 17(1) to erase the personal data, the controller, taking account of available technology and the cost of implementation, shall take reasonable steps, including technical measures, to inform other controllers processing the personal data that the data subject has requested erasure by such controllers of any links to, or copy or replication of, those personal data, as far as processing is not required. An employees of the did-act project will arrange the necessary measures in individual cases.
  • e) Right of restriction of processing Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to obtain from the controller restriction of processing where one of the following applies:
    • The accuracy of the personal data is contested by the data subject, for a period enabling the controller to verify the accuracy of the personal data.
    • The processing is unlawful and the data subject opposes the erasure of the personal data and requests instead the restriction of their use instead.
    • The controller no longer needs the personal data for the purposes of the processing, but they are required by the data subject for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims.
    • The data subject has objected to processing pursuant to Article 21(1) of the GDPR pending the verification whether the legitimate grounds of the controller override those of the data subject. If one of the aforementioned conditions is met, and a data subject wishes to request the restriction of the processing of personal data stored by the did-act project, he or she may at any time contact any employee of the controller. The employee of the did-act project will arrange the restriction of the processing.
  • f) Right to data portability Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator, to receive the personal data concerning him or her, which was provided to a controller, in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format. He or she shall have the right to transmit those data to another controller without hindrance from the controller to which the personal data have been provided, as long as the processing is based on consent pursuant to point (a) of Article 6(1) of the GDPR or point (a) of Article 9(2) of the GDPR, or on a contract pursuant to point (b) of Article 6(1) of the GDPR, and the processing is carried out by automated means, as long as the processing is not necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller. Furthermore, in exercising his or her right to data portability pursuant to Article 20(1) of the GDPR, the data subject shall have the right to have personal data transmitted directly from one controller to another, where technically feasible and when doing so does not adversely affect the rights and freedoms of others. In order to assert the right to data portability, the data subject may at any time contact any employee of the did-act project.
  • g) Right to object Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to object, on grounds relating to his or her particular situation, at any time, to processing of personal data concerning him or her, which is based on point (e) or (f) of Article 6(1) of the GDPR. This also applies to profiling based on these provisions. The did-act project shall no longer process the personal data in the event of the objection, unless we can demonstrate compelling legitimate grounds for the processing which override the interests, rights and freedoms of the data subject, or for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims. If the did-act project processes personal data for direct marketing purposes, the data subject shall have the right to object at any time to processing of personal data concerning him or her for such marketing. This applies to profiling to the extent that it is related to such direct marketing. If the data subject objects to the did-act project to the processing for direct marketing purposes, the did-act project will no longer process the personal data for these purposes. In addition, the data subject has the right, on grounds relating to his or her particular situation, to object to processing of personal data concerning him or her by the did-act project for scientific or historical research purposes, or for statistical purposes pursuant to Article 89(1) of the GDPR, unless the processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out for reasons of public interest. In order to exercise the right to object, the data subject may contact any employee of the did-act project. In addition, the data subject is free in the context of the use of information society services, and notwithstanding Directive 2002/58/EC, to use his or her right to object by automated means using technical specifications.
  • h) Automated individual decision-making, including profiling Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator not to be subject to a decision based solely on automated processing, including profiling, which produces legal effects concerning him or her, or similarly significantly affects him or her, as long as the decision (1) is not is necessary for entering into, or the performance of, a contract between the data subject and a data controller, or (2) is not authorised by Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject and which also lays down suitable measures to safeguard the data subject’s rights and freedoms and legitimate interests, or (3) is not based on the data subject’s explicit consent. If the decision (1) is necessary for entering into, or the performance of, a contract between the data subject and a data controller, or (2) it is based on the data subject’s explicit consent, the did-act project shall implement suitable measures to safeguard the data subject’s rights and freedoms and legitimate interests, at least the right to obtain human intervention on the part of the controller, to express his or her point of view and contest the decision. If the data subject wishes to exercise the rights concerning automated individual decision-making, he or she may, at any time, contact any employee of the did-act project.
  • i) Right to withdraw data protection consent Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to withdraw his or her consent to processing of his or her personal data at any time. If the data subject wishes to exercise the right to withdraw the consent, he or she may, at any time, contact any employee of the did-act project.

12. Data protection provisions about the application and use of LinkedIn

The controller has integrated components of the LinkedIn Corporation on this website. LinkedIn is a web-based social network that enables users with existing business contacts to connect and to make new business contacts. Over 400 million registered people in more than 200 countries use LinkedIn. Thus, LinkedIn is currently the largest platform for business contacts and one of the most visited websites in the world.

The operating company of LinkedIn is LinkedIn Corporation, 2029 Stierlin Court Mountain View, CA 94043, UNITED STATES. For privacy matters outside of the UNITED STATES LinkedIn Ireland, Privacy Policy Issues, Wilton Plaza, Wilton Place, Dublin 2, Ireland, is responsible.

With each call-up to one of the individual pages of this Internet site, which is operated by the controller and on which a LinkedIn component (LinkedIn plug-in) was integrated, the Internet browser on the information technology system of the data subject is automatically prompted to the download of a display of the corresponding LinkedIn component of LinkedIn. Further information about the LinkedIn plug-in may be accessed under https://developer.linkedin.com/plugins. During the course of this technical procedure, LinkedIn gains knowledge of what specific sub-page of our website was visited by the data subject.

If the data subject is logged in at the same time on LinkedIn, LinkedIn detects with every call-up to our website by the data subject—and for the entire duration of their stay on our Internet site—which specific sub-page of our Internet page was visited by the data subject. This information is collected through the LinkedIn component and associated with the respective LinkedIn account of the data subject. If the data subject clicks on one of the LinkedIn buttons integrated on our website, then LinkedIn assigns this information to the personal LinkedIn user account of the data subject and stores the personal data.

LinkedIn receives information via the LinkedIn component that the data subject has visited our website, provided that the data subject is logged in at LinkedIn at the time of the call-up to our website. This occurs regardless of whether the person clicks on the LinkedIn button or not. If such a transmission of information to LinkedIn is not desirable for the data subject, then he or she may prevent this by logging off from their LinkedIn account before a call-up to our website is made.

LinkedIn provides under https://www.linkedin.com/psettings/guest-controls the possibility to unsubscribe from e-mail messages, SMS messages and targeted ads, as well as the ability to manage ad settings. LinkedIn also uses affiliates such as Eire, Google Analytics, BlueKai, DoubleClick, Nielsen, Comscore, Eloqua, and Lotame. The setting of such cookies may be denied under https://www.linkedin.com/legal/cookie-policy. The applicable privacy policy for LinkedIn is available under https://www.linkedin.com/legal/privacy-policy. The LinkedIn Cookie Policy is available under https://www.linkedin.com/legal/cookie-policy.

13. Data protection provisions about the application and use of Twitter

On this website, the controller has integrated components of Twitter. Twitter is a multilingual, publicly-accessible microblogging service on which users may publish and spread so-called ‘tweets,’ e.g. short messages, which are limited to 280 characters. These short messages are available for everyone, including those who are not logged on to Twitter. The tweets are also displayed to so-called followers of the respective user. Followers are other Twitter users who follow a user’s tweets. Furthermore, Twitter allows you to address a wide audience via hashtags, links or retweets.

The operating company of Twitter is Twitter International Company, One Cumberland Place, Fenian Street Dublin 2, D02 AX07, Ireland.

With each call-up to one of the individual pages of this Internet site, which is operated by the controller and on which a Twitter component (Twitter button) was integrated, the Internet browser on the information technology system of the data subject is automatically prompted to download a display of the corresponding Twitter component of Twitter. Further information about the Twitter buttons is available under https://about.twitter.com/de/resources/buttons. During the course of this technical procedure, Twitter gains knowledge of what specific sub-page of our website was visited by the data subject. The purpose of the integration of the Twitter component is a retransmission of the contents of this website to allow our users to introduce this web page to the digital world and increase our visitor numbers.

If the data subject is logged in at the same time on Twitter, Twitter detects with every call-up to our website by the data subject and for the entire duration of their stay on our Internet site which specific sub-page of our Internet page was visited by the data subject. This information is collected through the Twitter component and associated with the respective Twitter account of the data subject. If the data subject clicks on one of the Twitter buttons integrated on our website, then Twitter assigns this information to the personal Twitter user account of the data subject and stores the personal data.

Twitter receives information via the Twitter component that the data subject has visited our website, provided that the data subject is logged in on Twitter at the time of the call-up to our website. This occurs regardless of whether the person clicks on the Twitter component or not. If such a transmission of information to Twitter is not desirable for the data subject, then he or she may prevent this by logging off from their Twitter account before a call-up to our website is made.

The applicable data protection provisions of Twitter may be accessed under https://twitter.com/privacy?lang=en.

14. Data protection provisions about the application and use of YouTube

On this website, the controller has integrated components of YouTube. YouTube is an Internet video portal that enables video publishers to set video clips and other users free of charge, which also provides free viewing, review and commenting on them. YouTube allows you to publish all kinds of videos, so you can access both full movies and TV broadcasts, as well as music videos, trailers, and videos made by users via the Internet portal.

The operating company of YouTube is Google Ireland Limited, Gordon House, Barrow Street, Dublin, D04 E5W5, Ireland.

With each call-up to one of the individual pages of this Internet site, which is operated by the controller and on which a YouTube component (YouTube video) was integrated, the Internet browser on the information technology system of the data subject is automatically prompted to download a display of the corresponding YouTube component. Further information about YouTube may be obtained under https://www.youtube.com/yt/about/en/. During the course of this technical procedure, YouTube and Google gain knowledge of what specific sub-page of our website was visited by the data subject.

If the data subject is logged in on YouTube, YouTube recognizes with each call-up to a sub-page that contains a YouTube video, which specific sub-page of our Internet site was visited by the data subject. This information is collected by YouTube and Google and assigned to the respective YouTube account of the data subject.

YouTube and Google will receive information through the YouTube component that the data subject has visited our website, if the data subject at the time of the call to our website is logged in on YouTube; this occurs regardless of whether the person clicks on a YouTube video or not. If such a transmission of this information to YouTube and Google is not desirable for the data subject, the delivery may be prevented if the data subject logs off from their own YouTube account before a call-up to our website is made.

YouTube’s data protection provisions, available at https://www.google.com/intl/en/policies/privacy/, provide information about the collection, processing and use of personal data by YouTube and Google.

15. Legal basis for the processing

Art. 6(1) lit. a GDPR serves as the legal basis for processing operations for which we obtain consent for a specific processing purpose. If the processing of personal data is necessary for the performance of a contract to which the data subject is party, as is the case, for example, when processing operations are necessary for the supply of goods or to provide any other service, the processing is based on Article 6(1) lit. b GDPR. The same applies to such processing operations which are necessary for carrying out pre-contractual measures, for example in the case of inquiries concerning our products or services. Is our company subject to a legal obligation by which processing of personal data is required, such as for the fulfillment of tax obligations, the processing is based on Art. 6(1) lit. c GDPR. In rare cases, the processing of personal data may be necessary to protect the vital interests of the data subject or of another natural person. This would be the case, for example, if a visitor were injured in our company and his name, age, health insurance data or other vital information would have to be passed on to a doctor, hospital or other third party. Then the processing would be based on Art. 6(1) lit. d GDPR. Finally, processing operations could be based on Article 6(1) lit. f GDPR. This legal basis is used for processing operations which are not covered by any of the abovementioned legal grounds, if processing is necessary for the purposes of the legitimate interests pursued by our company or by a third party, except where such interests are overridden by the interests or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject which require protection of personal data. Such processing operations are particularly permissible because they have been specifically mentioned by the European legislator. He considered that a legitimate interest could be assumed if the data subject is a client of the controller (Recital 47 Sentence 2 GDPR).

16. The legitimate interests pursued by the controller or by a third party

Where the processing of personal data is based on Article 6(1) lit. f GDPR our legitimate interest is to carry out our business in favor of the well-being of all our employees and the shareholders.

17. Period for which the personal data will be stored

The criteria used to determine the period of storage of personal data is the respective statutory retention period. After expiration of that period, the corresponding data is routinely deleted, as long as it is no longer necessary for the fulfillment of the contract or the initiation of a contract.

18. Provision of personal data as statutory or contractual requirement; Requirement necessary to enter into a contract; Obligation of the data subject to provide the personal data; possible consequences of failure to provide such data

We clarify that the provision of personal data is partly required by law (e.g. tax regulations) or can also result from contractual provisions (e.g. information on the contractual partner). Sometimes it may be necessary to conclude a contract that the data subject provides us with personal data, which must subsequently be processed by us. The data subject is, for example, obliged to provide us with personal data when our company signs a contract with him or her. The non-provision of the personal data would have the consequence that the contract with the data subject could not be concluded. Before personal data is provided by the data subject, the data subject must contact any employee. The employee clarifies to the data subject whether the provision of the personal data is required by law or contract or is necessary for the conclusion of the contract, whether there is an obligation to provide the personal data and the consequences of non-provision of the personal data.

19. Existence of automated decision-making

As a responsible company, we do not use automatic decision-making or profiling.

This Privacy Policy has been generated by the Privacy Policy Generator of the DGD – Your External DPO that was developed in cooperation with German Lawyers from WILDE BEUGER SOLMECKE, Cologne.

Participants: Medical educators

Learning units: Person-centered approach and the role of patients
Level: Teacher

Description: Offered as part of the faculty development to faculty educators.
Mode: Part to the faculty development program with emphasize on the educational potential of clinical reasoning teaching techniques

Technical Integration: Access to the DID-ACT Moodle, synchronous sessions were held via the virtual platform NewRow.

Tips & Tricks:

Participants: Multi-professional educators (nurses, physicians, paramedics)

Learning units: What is Clinical Reasoning and Models
Level: Teacher

Description: Offered as additional faculty development opportunity to staff members of the Medical Education Department.
Mode: Option / additional part to the faculty development program with emphasize on the educational potential of clinical reasoning teaching techniques

Technical Integration: Access to the DID-ACT Moodle via EduGain, synchronous sessions were held face-to-face.

Tips & Tricks: Give participants time to familiarize themselves with the learning material between the sessions. Do not put too much in one day - better to meet twice for shorter sessions. Face-to-face sessions lead to more productive discussions than Zoom meetings. Focus on discussion with the audience and on examples from practical teaching to illustrate the learning objectives.

Participants: Multi-professional educators

Learning units: Differences and similarities in clinical reasoning among health professions
Level: Teacher

Description: Offered as part of the faculty development program, it was held as a blended learning course with the synchronous phase online.
Mode: Part of the faculty development program with certificate

Technical Integration: Access to the DID-ACT Moodle via EduGain, synchronous sessions were held online via Zoom.

Tips & Tricks: Give good practical information how Moodle works and how the participants can find and work with the different assigments of the learning unit. Emphasize the importance to the participants to work with the different individual tasks, as the discussions will be more interesting and fruitful. Also important that all the participants from different occupations feel comfortable to meet and that they all are a part of the discussion. This is an important and maybe the primary task for the facilitator!

Participants: Multi-professional and international educators

Learning units: Clinical Reasoning teaching and assessment & What is Clinical Reasoning and Models
Level: Teacher

Description: Offered as optional learning unit for participants of the Master of Medical Education (MME) program in Bern/Switzerland.
Mode: Part of the faculty development program with certificate

Technical Integration: Access to the DID-ACT Moodle via EduGain, synchronous sessions were held face-to-face.

Tips & Tricks: To foster a valuable learning experience it is indispensible to provide good case examples that are tailored to the needs and experiences of the participants, so that they can relate to their prior knowledge. Thus, the provided examples in this learning units might need some adaptations for your target group of educators.

Participants: Multi-professional educators across German-speaking coutries

Learning units: Differences and similarities in clinical reasoning among health professions
Level: Teacher

Description: Offered as part of the faculty development program at the University of Augsburg, but open to participants from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. It was held as a blended learning course with the synchronous phase online. Participants were eager to exchange their experience and disucss their views across institutions and professions.
Mode: Part of the faculty development program with certificate

Technical Integration: Access to the DID-ACT Moodle via EduGain, synchronous sessions were held online via Zoom.

Tips & Tricks: To foster a valuable interprofessional experience the participants should represent a balanced mix of professions and also ideally the facilitators should at least represent two different professions. This allows a good discussion and also guarantees that the small groups can work interprofessionally. Our experience with a less-balanced group composition was that the over-represented profession dominates the discussions and it was quite difficult to counter-balance this.

Target group: Medical students in year 2

Learning units: Person-centered approach to clinical reasoning
Level: Novice

Description:The Learning Unit was run as an extra-curricular session as a virtual class. The facilitators were trained on this topic by attending the Train-the-trainer learning unit on "Person-centered approach and the role of patients".
Mode: Extracurricular activity

Technical Integration: Access to the DID-ACT Moodle via EduGain, synchronous sessions were held online via NewRow.

Tips & Tricks: Learning objective cross-referencing with the existing curriculum helps identify the level of integration. Encouraging and helping students to get familiar with Moodle before the session facilitates a smooth integration of the asynchronous phases.

Target group: Medical students in year 4 and 5

Learning units: Generating differential diagnoses and deciding about final diagnoses
Level: Novice

Description: The learning unit was integrated into a pediatric emergency department clerkship with a relation to virtual patients already used in this clerkship. Facilitators were trained by attending the train-the-trainer unit on "Information gathering, Generating differential diagnoses, Decision making, and Treatment planning".
Mode: Part of a regular curricular activity

Technical Integration: Access to the DID-ACT Moodle via EduGain, synchronous sessions were held face-to-face.

Tips & Tricks: Integration into clerkships works well, especially with a relation to already used content.

Target group: Medical students in year 1-6

Learning units: All 25 learning units of the DID-ACT curriculum
Level: Novice - Advanced

Description:
Longitudinal integration of the DID-ACT learning units into a clinical skills & communication course with the following suggested distribution across years:
Year 1: What is Clinical Reasoning, Person-centered approach to clinical reasoning, Health profession roles in clinical reasoning, and Biomedical Knowledge & Clinical Reasoning. (Required time in curriculum ca. 5 hours / semester)
Year 2: Dual Process Theory, Illness scripts, Collect and prioritize key clinical findings/problems, and What is clinical reasoning and How can theories be put into practice (Intermediate). (Required time in curriculum: ca. 4 1/2 hours/semester)
Year 3: Generating differential diagnoses and deciding about final diagnosis, Biases and cognitive errors - an Introduction, Analyzing and avoiding errors. (Required time in curriculum: ca. 4 1/2 hours/semester)
Year 4: Using the Outcome Present State Test Model, Developing a treatment plan, Metacognition, reflection and models for reflection, Collaboration of health professions in Clinical Reasoning (Intermediate). (Required time in curriculum: ca. 6 hours/semester)
Year 5: All remaining intermediate learning units: Shared Decision Making in Clinical Reasoning, Decision Support Systems, Ethical aspects - patient management and treatment, Uncertainty. (Required time in curriculum: ca. 5 hours/semester)
Year 6: All 6 advanced learning units: Collaborate with others in clinical reasoning, Decision Support Systems, Biases and cognitive errors, Uncertainty, Metacognition, reflection and models for reflection, Analyzing and avoiding errors.
(Required time: ca. 6 hours / semester. Final year students often have a day/week off from clinical work so these days could be used for DID-ACT learning units and optional participation in the train-the-trainer units)
Years 1-5: Virtual Patients (VPs) as additional deliberate practice activities in increasing number and complexity (e.g. starting with 5 VPs (=ca. 1.5 hours)/semester) in Year 1 and increasing to 10 VPs/semester) in Year 3-5.
Mode: Integrated into a clinical longitudinal course that runs from year 1 to 6 resulting in a total of 2.4 ECTS.

Technical Integration: Access to the DID-ACT Moodle via EduGain, synchronous sessions face-to-face or online.

Tips & Tricks:
Alining a longitudinal curriculum with curricula of other health professions remains a challenge and requires careful and early planning, but the asynchronous phases might be a good starting point for interprofessional teaching sessions. The VPs can be quite easily aligned with other curricular courses e.g., based on key symptoms.

Target group: Medical students in year 3

Learning units: Person-centered approach to clinical reasoning
Level: Novice

Description: The learning unit was integrated into the Laboratory Training of Clinical Skills. This course consists of six face-to-face meetings for groups of around 10 students. Within the meetings the students discuss various topics related to communication skills and person-centered approach. The fifth of the six meetings of the course was replaced by the DID-ACT learning unit. Students could then refer back to this learning unit during final session of the course.
Mode: Part of a regular curricular activity

Technical Integration: Access to the DID-ACT Moodle via EduGain, synchronous sessions were held face-to-face. If possible, a uniform technology to provide access to the online resources in the class (using university tablets in our case) and support of the technical staff on-site was helpful to lower the technical barrier.

Tips & Tricks: Changing of the standard format of classes is interesting and motivating for the students. Virtual patients are a tool to present authentic clinical scenarios which are appreciated by the students. A blend of role-play and virtual patients allows students to take advantages of the two methods to reach the learning objectives.

Target group: Medical students in year 2 and nursing students in year 3 across Europe

Learning units: Collaboration of Health Professions in Clinical Reasoning
Level: Intermediate

Description:
This learning unit was implemented with , aside from clinical reasoning, tow additional objectives: 1) providing internationalization experience for students without traveling. 2) Deepening the knowledge of one's own professional roles and responsibilities and knowledge of another profession .
Mode: Extra-curricular interprofessional learning session with international participants

Technical Integration: Self-registration on DID-ACT Moodle, synchronous sessions via zoom.

Tips & Tricks: Facilitators running this course and supporting the discussions should be careful about supporting and encouraging all the participating professions' perspectives.

Target group: Medical students in year 1 and 2 (preclinical) across Europe

Learning units: Introduction into Clinical Reasoning & Health profession roles in clinical reasoning
Level: Novice

Description: The course was offered as a blended learning module to students from different medical schools in Europe as an international elective. Synchronous phases were held online via Zoom. The international aspect was very motivating for students and they learnt a lot from each other by exchanging their perspectives and how they are taught clinical reasoning vaspects. This teaching mode could also be implemented as an activity to welcome or prepare new Erasmus students. Facilitairs were trained by attending the train-the-trainer learning unit on "Differences and similarities in clinical reasoning among health professions".
Mode: Elective course

Technical Integration: Self-registration on DID-ACT Moodle, synchronous sessions via zoom and use of Padlet for interactivities.

Tips & Tricks: The organization with the registration of students was a bit complex, so, we suggest just setting dates and let students book. Allow enough (more time) for discussion and introduction rounds as participants do not know each other and are eager to hear and learn from peers at other schools and countries. Ideally, this session could also be held interprofessionally, however, it makes the finding of suitable dates even more complex.

How to teach synchronously in a virtual setting

  • You need a reliable camera, microphone, and virtual platform and be familiar with its features, such as whiteboard, chat, polling, breakout rooms, etc.
  • At the beginning establish communication rules, e.g. whether participants should raise their (virtual) hand, use the chat, and/or just speak. Also, we recommend asking participants to turn on their camera
  • For small group work break out rooms work very well, just be clear about the tasks the groups should work on prior to dividing them into the groups.
  • For collaboration the use of integrated virtual whiteboards or other platforms such as Padlet are very useful. Just make sure prior to the session that you have everything setup and the links at hand, e.g. to post them in the chat.
  • Allow a bit more time for starting the session and the group works as there might be participants who are not familiar with the platform or technical problems might occur.

How to motivate unprepared participants

  • Make clear that the asynchronous assignments are a core part of the course and that its content will not be repeated. Even if it is difficult, stick to that when starting the synchronous teaching session.
  • If you expect unprepared participants, you can start the session with a student-centered group exercise mixing prepared and unprepared students to increase peer-pressure and make them realize that being unprepared does not feel good.  
  • Use the introductory or closing quizzes / tests so that participants can self- assess whether they have the required knowledge and you as a facilitator can see the level of knowledge and preparation of your participants.

Further recommended reading:

How to involve participants with different levels of experience

  • To account for such different levels, we recommend making use of the asynchronous preparatory phases which also include introductory quizzes in which participants can self-assess their prior knowledge and you as a facilitator can assess the differences within your group. Participants with less prior experience can also be guided to additional preparatory resources.
  • Encourage participants to work in pairs or small groups when preparing so that they can help and learn from each other. You could even facilitate this by dividing them into groups with different levels of experience.
  • Similarly, during the synchronous phases, we recommend forming groups with participants different levels of experience and emphasize the peer support aspects of such group activities.
  • We also recommend starting with rather smaller groups and allow more time than stated in the course outlines, if you expect a heterogenous level of experience. This way you can better manage this challenge.
  • Encourage your participants to ask questions, emphasizing that nobody knows everything and that it is important for learning to ask questions.  
  • Especially in the train-the-trainer course you might have to deal with over-confident participants, who especially in an interprofessional setting can dominate the group. This is a complex cultural challenge, but you could try to establish (and follow) communication rules at the beginning of a session.  

How to address potential overlaps or redundancies

  • Identify what is already included and what is missing in your curriculum related to clinical reasoning outcomes and compare it to the DID-ACT blueprint. Prioritize learning outcomes that are not yet covered but regarded as important.
  • Identify activities, resources, or teaching sessions with similar learning outcomes that might be in need for change anyway because of low evaluation results, teachers or students struggle with it. These could be suitable for adding or replacing parts with DID-ACT activities.
  • Ask teachers and students about overlaps and gaps they see in their teaching / learning of clinical reasoning and where they struggle. This could also be done by a reflection round after related teaching activities in the curriculum
  • Although ideally a longitudinal integration is aimed at, we recommend to starting small with a pilot implementation to gain experience and develop a show case.

How to teach in an interprofessional setting

  • Allow for enough time prior to the teaching for the organization and motivation / encouragement of stakeholders and participants
  • Allow for enough time and guidance during the course so that the participants from the different professions can get to know each other and their professions and discuss their different perspectives. This might mean that you need to calculate some extra time in addition to the suggested duration of the learning unit.
  • There may be a different understanding of clinical reasoning in the different health professions, so we recommend making participants aware of this. You could for example use and adapt activities from the learning units on the health profession roles to facilitate this.
  • Courses in an interprofessional setting should not come too early in the curriculum (not before professions have formed their own professional identity - however, this also depends on the aim of the course). 
  • Make sure you have enough participants from different professions. If possible, the facilitator could divide the participants in smaller groups with an equal distribution of professions. 
  • Similarly, you need an equal distribution of facilitators / facilitators from different professions.
  • Develop customized learning materials considering the different professions. If needed you can adapt the material and activities provided in the DID-ACT curriculum.

Further recommended reading:

van Diggele, C., Roberts, C., Burgess, A. et al. Interprofessional education: tips for design and implementation. BMC Med Educ 20, 455 (2020). (Link)

Theoretical / Background Knowledge

These resources and activities summarize all topics from the student learning units to introduce educators to these concepts. These resources are part of the train-the-trainer courses and marked as "optional" . Thus, they can be used optionally by course facilitators if participants are not yet familiar with basic concepts.

Theme(s): All basic concepts of clinical reasoning
Level: Educators
Format: Additional resources and material provided for each train-the-trainer learning unit that can be integrated if needed, e.g. if participants are quite new to the topic. These resources cover the basic concepts of a topic without going into the teaching aspects, so they can be used as preparatory steps.

Metacognition, reflection and models for reflection

Similar to the novice learning unit learners are asked to complete a reflective diary for five days. However, in this learning unit they should focus on critical or difficult situations in the clinical context.

Theme(s): Errors & biases
Level: Advanced
Format: Asynchronous online preparatory phase (ca. 60 min) with a synchronous follow-up meeting (ca. 60 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.07
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Ethical aspects - patient management and treatment

his learning unit provides an introduction into bioethical principles, consent, capacity, and ethical clinical reasoning.

Theme(s): Ethical Aspects
Level: Intermediate
Format: Asynchronous online preparatory phase (ca. 60 min) with a synchronous follow-up meeting (ca. 90 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.08
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Decision Support Systems

The learning unit includes the generation of a decision tree based on a breast cancer data set from radiology department using the RapidMiner software package and an elaboration of the concepts of sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, we will apply Bayesian reasoning and give an opportunity to discuss the base rate fallacy problem and the use of electronic calculators to judge the risk. The learning unit is finished with a discussion of the barriers/facilitators of using computers/AI in hospitals to support clinical reasoning.

Theme(s): Gathering, interpreting, and synthesizing information, Decision making
Level: Advanced
Format: Synchronous meeting (ca. 90 min) followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 90 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.1
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Uncertainty

In this learning unit, the approach of practice inquiry will be introduced and applied.

Theme(s): Biases & errors
Level: Advanced
Format: Asynchronous online preparation (ca. 60 min) followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 60 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.07
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Analyzing and avoiding errors

This learning unit will provide general and specific aspects of a morbidity and mortality conference and apply the knowlege by working through a case report.

Theme(s): Biases & errors
Level: Advanced
Format: Asynchronous online preparation (ca. 60 min) followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 90 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.08
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Biases and cognitive errors

This learning unit introduces additional errors and biases and your will have the opportunity to work on virtual patients to identify error-prone situations.

Theme(s): Biases & errors, Ethical aspects, Theories of clinical reasoning
Level: Advanced
Format: Asynchronous online preparataion (ca. 60 min) for a follow-up synchronous meeting (ca. 90 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.08
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Shared Decision Making in Clinical Reasoning

In this learning unit, learners will be familiarized or re-familiarized with the basic concept of shared decision-making (SDM) in a way that serves as a steping stone for how to implement key concepts and models into practice. A job aid on shared decision-making will be a takeaway from this learning unit.

Theme(s): Patient Perspective, Decision Making
Level: Intermediate
Format: Asynchronous online preparation (ca. 60 min) with a follow-up synchronous meeting (ca. 90 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.08
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Collaboration of health professions in clinical reasoning

In this learning unit you will be able to apply interprofessional aspects of clinical reasoning and understand similarities and differences between the clinical reasoning of health professions. This facilitates a better communicate across professions in the clinical reasoning process to meet the needs of the patient.

Theme(s): (Interprofessional) Collaboration
Level: Intermediate
Format: Starting with two synchronous meetings (each 60 min or combined) followed by an asynchronous follow-up (ca. 60 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.1
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Decision Support Systems

The aim of this learning unit is to facilitate a discussion about which aspects of clinical reasoning can be supported by artificial intelligence and what the limitations of machines in clinical reasoning are.

Theme(s): Gathering, interpreting, and synthesizing information, Decision making
Level: Intermediate
Format: Synchronous meeting (ca. 90 min) with a follow-up asynchronous phase (ca. 90 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.1
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Evaluation of Clinical Reasoning

This learning unit provides an overview about surveys and questions suitable to evaluate clinical reasoning teaching. It also introduces the relevance of learning analytics.

Theme(s): Teaching clinical reasoning
Level: Educators
Format: Self-guided on-demand course with different material on clinical reasoning evaluation (ca. 60 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.03
Links: Course

Discussing and teaching about cognitive errors and biases

In this learning unit participating educators and clinicians will have the opportunity to share ideas on how a culture for discussing errors should look like. They will also learn more about most common errors and biases in clinical resoning and (teaching) strategies on how to avoid these. This learning unit supports educators in teaching the student courses on the novice level: Biases and cognitive errors, Uncertainty, and Analyzing & avoiding errors

Theme(s): Teaching clinical reasoning, Errors & biases, Theories of clinical reasoning, Ethical aspects
Level: Educators
Format: Asynchronous preparation (ca. 60 min) followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 90 min). Optional additional activities are provided for beginners (ca. 80 min).
Recommended ECTS: 0.08 (including optional phase: 0.13)
Links: Participant course - Facilitator resources

Information gathering, Generating differential diagonses, Decision making, and Treatment planning

This learning unit is designed to support educators in implementing the student courses on Collect and prioritize key clinical findings/problems, Generating differential diagnoses and deciding about final diagnosis, Developing a treatment plan, and Biomedical Knowledge and Clinical Reasoning

Theme(s): Teaching clinical reasoning, Gathering, interpreting & synthesizing information, Generating differential diagnoses, Developing a treatment / management plan, Decision making, Ethical aspects
Level: Educators
Format: Asynchronous preparation (ca. 60 min) followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 60 min). Optional additional activities for beginners are available (ca. 60 min).
Recommended ECTS: 0.07 (including optional phase: 0.1)
Links: Participant course - Facilitator resources

Person-centred approach and the role of patients

This learning unit prepares educators to comprehensively and confidently teach the the learning unit on Person-centred approach to clinical reasoning. This unit will take educators through the learning content provided in the learning unit, as well as supports them in familiarizing themselves with the resources and exercises. Educators will have the opportunity to create their own teaching notes as part of this learning unit.

Theme(s): Teaching clinical reasoning, Patient perspective
Level: Educators
Format: Asynchronous preparation (ca. 60 min), followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 90 min). Optional additional activites are available for beginners (ca. 100 min).
Recommended ECTS: 0.08 (including optional phases: 0.14)
Links: Participant course - Facilitator resources

Differences and similarities in clinical reasoning among health professions

This learning unit introduces teaching methods for clinical reasoning in different healthcare professions and prepares educators to teach the learning units on Health profession roles in clinical reasoning

Theme(s): Teaching clinical reasoning, (Interprofessional) collaboration
Level: Educators
Format: Asynchronous preparation (ca. 60 min) followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 70 min). Optional additional activities provided for beginners (ca. 120 min).
Recommended ECTS: 0.07 (including optional phases: 0.14)
Links: Course,Facilitator resources

What is Clinical Reasoning and Models

This learning unit familiarizes healthcare profession educators on teaching aspects related to the clinical reasoning process and terminology of the different health professions. This includes how to explain the importance of clinical reasoning in the different health professions to students and how to support students in reflecting on clinical reasoning theories. The learning unit prepares you for teaching the novice courses on What is clinical reasoning, Dual Process Theory, Outcome Present State model, and Illness scripts.

Theme(s): Teaching clinical reasoning, Theories of clinical reasoning
Level: Educators
Format: Two synchronous meetings (ca. 60 and 45 min) with asynchronous phase (ca. 45 min) in between. Optional additional phase with ca. 45 min.
Recommended ECTS: 0.08 (including optional phase: 0.11)
Links: Course, Facilitator resources

Clinical Reasoning teaching and assessment

This learning unit provides and overview about teaching and assessment methods for clinical reasoning. It also highlights some general apsects, such as the importance of constructive alignment or how to organize group discussions.

Theme(s): Teaching clinical reasoning
Level: Educators
Format: Self-guided on-demand course with different material on clinical reasoning teaching and assessment.
Recommended ECTS: 0.03
Links: Course

DID-ACT clinical reasoning curriculum

This learning unit provides an overview about the DID-ACT student curriculum including all course outlines and resources neede to implement these learning units. It also introduces a tutorial on how to read the course outlines and use the provided resources.

Theme(s): Teaching clinical reasoning
Level: Educators
Format: Self-guided on-demand course with different material on our DID-ACT curriculum including all course outlines for student learning units and material needed.
Links: Course

Analyzing and avoiding errors

Along a case report this learning unit introduces the root cause analysis (RCA) to analyze errors and start to find ways for preventing / avoiding errors.

Theme(s): Errors & Biases
Level: Novice
Format: Asynchronous preparation (ca. 90 min) followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 70 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.09
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Metacognition, reflection and models for reflection

In this learning unit reflection models will be introduced and self-reflection will be applied on form of a reflective diary.

Theme(s): Errors & biases
Level: Novice
Format: Synchronous meeting (ca. 60 min), followed by an asynchronous online phase (ca. 80 min) and a concluding synchronous meeting (ca. 80 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.12
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Uncertainty

The aim of this learning unit is to introduce situations of uncertainty and strategies that can be applied in such situations to avoid errors.

Theme(s): Errors & biases
Level: Intermediate
Format: Asynchronous preparation (ca. 60 min) followed by a synchronous session (ca. 90 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.08
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Biases and cognitive errors - an Introduction

This learning unit provides a basic introduction into the topic of biases and cognitive errors. It introduces a selection of common biases, such as premature closure or confirmation bias with providing the opportunity to elaborate on these biases with case vignettes.

Theme(s): Errors & biases, Theories of clinical reasoning, Ethical aspects
Level: Novice
Format: Asynchronous preparation (ca. 70 min) with a follow-up synchronous meeting (ca. 90 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.09
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Developing a treatment plan

This learning unit provides an introduction into the topics "EBM in the context of clinical reasoning" and "developing a treatment/management plan" for students with no or some prior clinical experience.

Theme(s): Developing a treatment / management plan, Ethical aspects, Patient perspective
Level: Novice
Format: Asynchronous preparation (ca. 45 min) followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 80 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.08
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Generating differential diagnoses and deciding about final diagnosis

This learning unit introduces different methods of creating and organizing differential diagnoses. There is also opportunity to practice the finding of differential diagnoses as well as discriminating and confining features on a prototypical case.

Theme(s): Generating differential diagnoses, Decision Making
Level: Novice
Format: Two synchronous meetings (ca. 90 min each) with an asynchronous phase in between (ca. 60 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.13
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Collect and prioritize key clinical findings/problems

This learning unit highlights how to collect and prioritize key clinical findings using case examples.

Theme(s): Gathering, interpreting & synthesizing information
Level: Novice
Format: Asynchronous preparatory phase (ca. 45 min) followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 60 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.06
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Biomedical Knowledge and Clinical Reasoning

This learning unit explains the interconnection of biomedical knowledge and differential diagnoses formulation and explores different techniques to visualize encapsulated knowledge.

Theme(s): Generating differential diagnoses
Level: Novice
Format: Two synchronous sessions (ca. 60 min each) with an asynchronous learning phase in between (ca. 45 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.09
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Person-centered approach to clinical reasoning

The goal of this learning unit is to define what a 'person perspective' is in the context of healthcare provision and highlight why it is important when providing a quality healthcare experience. Learners will also visit the definitions of biomedical information as well as recite the terminology "diagnostic and analysis" in a way that helps patients and their families understand this stage in healthcare provision. Lastly, learners will combine the above into practical ability using questions that promote support for families and patients using terminology that facilitates mutual understanding.

Theme(s): Patient perspective
Level: Novice
Format: A synchronous meetings (ca. 90 min), with a preparatory and a follow-up asynchronous phase (ca. 90 and 45 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.13
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Collaborate with others in clinical reasoning

This learning unit provides basic knowledge within different healthcare professions or across medical specialisations e.g. surgery, internal medicine and their collaboration with others in clinical reasoning.

Theme(s): (Interprofessional) Collaboration
Level: Advanced
Format: Asynchronous online preparation (ca. 60mins) for a follow-up synchronous meeting (ca. 90 mins)
Recommended ECTS: 0.08
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Health profession roles in clinical reasoning

This learning unit provides an introduction to the various health professions involved in health care on the subject of clinical reasoning. The unit has been developed for beginner and novice learners, and is appropriate for those who have and have not yet had extensive clinical experience due to the team aspect of the assessments. The learning unit will highlight varied professions ranging between physiotherapy, medicine, nursing, and occupational therapy and learners will be able to compare and contrast the definitions of clinical reasoning within said professions, as well as relate how this team-understanding fits into the broader picture of healthcare, with a goal to establish a common understanding and definition of 'clinical reasoning'.

Theme(s): (Interprofessional) Collaboration
Level: Novice
Format: Asynchronous preparatory phase (ca 45 min) followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 90min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.08
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Using the Outcome Present State Test Model

This learning unit provides an introduction into the the Outcome-Presenter-State model for clinical reasoning, which is applied especially in nursing. The learning unit is designed for novices of all health professions who are at the beginning of their education.

Theme(s): Theories of Clinical Reasoning
Level: Novice
Format: Asynchronous preparation phase (ca. 80 min) with a follow-up synchronous meeting (ca. 90 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.09
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Illness Scripts

This learning unit provides an introduction into scripts in general and more specifically into llness scripts for novices who are at the beginning of their education and do not have any prior knowledge or experience with illness scripts.

Theme(s): Theories of Clinical Reasoning
Level: Novice
Format: Two synchronous sessions (ca. 160 min) with an asynchronous learning phase (ca. 60 min) in between
Recommended ECTS: 0.12
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

Dual Process Theory

This learning unit provides an introduction into the dual processing theory amd highlights the differences between system 1 and system 2 reasoning.

Theme(s): Theories of Clinical Reasoning
Level: Novice
Format: Asynchronous preparation phase (ca. 90 min) followed by a synchronous meeting (ca. 90 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.1
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

What is clinical reasoning and how can theories be put into practice

This learning unit covers how clinical reasoning theories can be used/applied during beside teaching, internships or other patient-centered situations and why it is important to know these theories. It deepens the differences and similarities of clinical reasoning in the health professions, terminology used and importance of clinical reasoning.

Theme(s): Theories of Clinical Reasoning
Level: Intermediate
Format: Asynchronous preparation (ca. 45 min) for a follow-up synchronous meeting (ca. 60 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.07
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

What is Clinical Reasoning - An Introduction

This learning unit provides an introduction into the topic for novices who are at the beginning of their education and do not have any prior knowledge or experiences with clinical reasoning.

Theme(s): Theories of Clinical Reasoning
Level: Novice
Format: Synchronous meeting (60 min) followed by asynchronous follow-up (60 min)
Recommended ECTS: 0.07
Links: Student course - Facilitator resources

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